Field of Science

Redescription of the Sail-backed Poposauroid Ctenosauriscus from the Early Triassic of Germany

Available now at PLoSONE is a redescription of this important historic Triassic taxon which is the namesake of a clade of sail-backed poposauroid archosaurs that have come into recent prominence given the discovery of a well-preserved specimen of Arizonasaurus babbitti in 2002. 


Butler, R. J., Brusatte, S. L., Reich, M., Nesbitt, S. J., Schoch, R. R., and J. J. Hornung. 2011. The sail-backed reptile Ctenosauriscus from the latest Early Triassic of Germany and the timing and biogeography of the early archosaur radiation. PLoS ONE 6(10): e25693. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025693



Archosaurs (birds, crocodilians and their extinct relatives including dinosaurs) dominated Mesozoic continental ecosystems from the Late Triassic onwards, and still form a major component of modern ecosystems (>10,000 species). The earliest diverse archosaur faunal assemblages are known from the Middle Triassic (c. 244 Ma), implying that the archosaur radiation began in the Early Triassic (252.3–247.2 Ma). Understanding of this radiation is currently limited by the poor early fossil record of the group in terms of skeletal remains.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We redescribe the anatomy and stratigraphic position of the type specimen of Ctenosauriscus koeneni (Huene), a sail-backed reptile from the Early Triassic (late Olenekian) Solling Formation of northern Germany that potentially represents the oldest known archosaur. We critically discuss previous biomechanical work on the ‘sail’ of Ctenosauriscus, which is formed by a series of elongated neural spines. In addition, we describe Ctenosauriscus-like postcranial material from the earliest Middle Triassic (early Anisian) Röt Formation of Waldhaus, southwestern Germany. Finally, we review the spatial and temporal distribution of the earliest archosaur fossils and their implications for understanding the dynamics of the archosaur radiation.


Comprehensive numerical phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that both Ctenosauriscus and the Waldhaus taxon are members of a monophyletic grouping of poposauroid archosaurs, Ctenosauriscidae, characterised by greatly elongated neural spines in the posterior cervical to anterior caudal vertebrae. The earliest archosaurs, including Ctenosauriscus, appear in the body fossil record just prior to the Olenekian/Anisian boundary (c. 248 Ma), less than 5 million years after the Permian–Triassic mass extinction. These earliest archosaur assemblages are dominated by ctenosauriscids, which were broadly distributed across northern Pangea and which appear to have been the first global radiation of archosaurs.


  1. This paper is very interesting but I can't understand something. Why wasn't Bromsgroveia included in Nesbitt's analysis? (and why wasn't Xilousuchus included in Brusatte et al.'s analysis)

  2. Bromsgrovea is only known from the holotype ilium, which is pretty much identical to that of Arizonasaurus. There is some referred material, but this material is not directly associated with the ilium.

    Xilousuchus was considered a 'proterosuchian' when the Brusatte et al. study was done, so they could not be expected to include it.


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