Field of Science

Proceedings of the First Annual Symposium on Fossil Preparation and Collections Now Available

Starting in 2008 fossil preparators and collection managers have been meeting once a year in symposia dedicated to sharing methodology and techniques regarding fossil preparation and conservation. The first meeting was held at Petrified Forest National Park and the proceedings volume from this meeting is now available on-line. The PDFs are open access, however; bound copies are also available.The 2010 meeting is being hosted by the Chicago Field Museum.

New Volume on the Early Triassic Vertebrates from Karst Deposits at Czatkowice, Poland

The most recent issue (10 papers) of Palaeontologia Polonica (Volume 65, dated 2009) is dedicated to describing the vertebrate faunal assemblage a Czatkowice Poland. The issue is open access and available at the Palaeontologia Polonica website.

The Early Triassic karst of Czatkowice 1, southern Poland

Taphonomy and geochemistry of a vertebrate microremains assemblage from the Early Triassic karst deposits at Czatkowice 1, southern Poland

The Early Triassic temnospondyls of the Czatkowice 1 tetrapod assemblage

The Early Triassic stem−frog Czatkobatrachus from Poland

Procolophonids from the Early Triassic of Poland

An early kuehneosaurid reptile (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Early Triassic of Poland

A small lepidosauromorph reptile from the Early Triassic of Poland

A long−necked archosauromorph from the Early Triassic of Poland

Cranial and mandibular osteology of the Early Triassic archosauriform Osmolskina czatkowicensis from Poland

Archosauriform postcranial remains from the Early Triassic karst deposits of southern Poland

Coelophysis and the Return of the Hairy Museum

Matt Celeskey (the Hairy Museum of Natural History) has returned after a blogging hiatus with the first of what offers to be an excellent series of posts on the New Mexico Museum of Natural History's Coelophysis Quarry block and what information it is yielding about the taphonomy of the site and the critters found within. It is another good example of the caliber of information you can get by careful, detailed analysis of the fossils and the surrounding sediments.

Driving Through Desmatosuchus Country

I just recently had the opportunity to drive through western Texas. This area is known many for its flat plains, the Llano Estacado or'caprock'; however, the rivers of the area remove this resistant layer exposing the Permian and Triassic strata below.

White River badlands

It is from these strata that E. C. Case of the University of Michigan collected the type specimens of many Late Triassic archosaurs including the aetosaur Desmatosuchus spurensis in 1919. This specimen came from the breaks of the White (Blanco) River, more specifically at the crossing of the old mail route between the towns of Spur and Crosbyton.

Holotype specimen of Desmatosuchus spurensis in the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology

Almost three decades earlier E. D. Cope and his collectors had recovered the partial skeleton of another aetosaur that Cope had named Episcoposaurus haplocerus in 1892. E. haplocerus and D. spurensis remained separate taxa unofficially (several authors including Camp, 1930 had suspected they were synonymous) until 1953, when Joseph Gregory formed the new combination Desmatosuchus haplocerus (the type of Epicoposaurus, E. horridus, = Typothorax). Thus the town of Spur lost their namesake taxon as a junior synonym.

Downtown Spur, Texas

Spur is a small town of just over 1000 people east of Lubbock. Because it is surrounded by the breaks of Dockum Creek to the north and east and the White River to the west it is nesled in low hills and woods and differs from many of the other cities up on the caprock. I've visited Spur twice now, once in 2001 and just recently. Why? Because of this:

This is a mural on the side of the local history museum, which tells the story of the area. Note the prominence of Desmatosuchus in the lower right corner. Here is a close-up.

Let's just say that outdoor murals of aetosaurs are rare, and to someone who has spent over a decade researching these animals and especially this taxon visiting the area where the original specimens were collected, the town D. spurensis was named for, and this spectacular mural, is a thrill (at least for me). I'm also glad that the town of Spur has officially gotten their fossil name back. Desmatosuchus haplocerus is a nomen dubium and thus D. spurensis has been restored as a valid taxon (Parker, 2008). One day I hope to get the opportunity to explore the badlands where Case worked. It would be an ultimate thrill to relocate and document the site where this amazing fossil was collected. If anyone knows where the old mail road crossing was please let me know.


Parker, W.G. (2008). Description of new material of the aetosaur Desmatosuchus spurensis (Archosauria: Suchia) from the Chinle Formation of Arizona and a revision of the genus Desmatosuchus. PaleoBios 28(1): 1-40.

New in Science - Unidirectional Airflow in the Lungs of Alligators

I have not seen this paper yet, but the implications are really cool. Thanks to Andy Farke for sharing the abstract.

Farmer, C. G., and K. Sanders. 2010. Unidirectional airflow in the lungs of alligators. Science 327(5963):338-340. DOI: 10.1126/science.1180219

Abstract: The lungs of birds move air in only one direction during both inspiration and expiration through most of the tubular gas-exchanging bronchi (parabronchi), whereas in the lungs of mammals and presumably other vertebrates, air moves tidally into and out of terminal gas-exchange structures, which are cul-de-sacs. Unidirectional flow
purportedly depends on bellowslike ventilation by air sacs and may have evolved to meet the high aerobic demands of sustained flight. Here, we show that air flows unidirectionally through parabronchi in the lungs of the American alligator, an amphibious ectotherm without air sacs, which suggests that this pattern dates back to the basal archosaurs of the Triassic and may have been present in their nondinosaur descendants (phytosaurs, aetosaurs, rauisuchians,crocodylomorphs, and pterosaurs) as well as in dinosaurs.

Latest Triassic Literature

This batch includes a few stragglers from 2009.

Abdala, F., and Ribeiro, A.M. 2010. Distribution and diversity patterns of Triassic cynodonts (Therapsida, Cynodontia) in Gondwana. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.01.011.

ABSTRACT: Cynodonts are an important component of Triassic tetrapod faunas and are frequently one of the dominant groups. A summary of their record during the Triassic of Gondwana is presented. Cynodonts are represented by 63 species/57 genera in Gondwana with diversification peaks occurring during the Late Anisian (particularly in Africa) and the Carnian of South America and India. Data on the number of faunas of each age and the duration (in millions of years) estimated for these faunas were integrated with cynodont generic diversity values. One of the most important turnovers in cynodonts occurred at the Late Olenekian-Anisian, involving changes in two directions: a) the record of complex bucco-lingually expanded (gomphodont) postcanines, with traversodontid cynodonts already representing an important group at the end of the Anisian; b) the record, particularly during the Anisian, of significantly large-sized cynodonts (e.g. Cynognathus and Diademodon with basal skull length between 30 to 40 cm). Considering that the global maximum peak of cynodont diversity is during the Norian-Rhaetian, the diversity of Gondwanan cynodonts for that time, eight taxa, is remarkably low.

Dalla Vecchia, D. M. 2009. The first Italian specimen of Austriadactylus cristatus (Diapsida, Pterosauria) from the Norian (Upper Triassic) of the Carnic Prealps. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 115:291-304.

Abstract: The Triassic pterosaur Austriadactylus cristatus is reported for the first time from the Norian (Upper Triassic) of north-eastern Italy. It is only the second specimen of this taxon and provides new information on the mandibular dentition, cranium and postcranium (cervical vertebrae and the forelimb), not available in the holotype. A cladistic analysis shows that Austriadactylus is phylogenetically closer to Preondactylus than to Eudimorphodon.

Petti, F. M., Avanzini, M., Nicosia, U., Girardi, S., Bernardi, M., Ferretti, P., Schirolli, P., and C. Dal Sasso. 2009. Late Triassic (Early-Middle Carnian) crurotarsan tracks from the Val Sabbia Sandstone (Eastern Lombardy, Brescian Prealps, Northern Italy). Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 115:xxx-290.

Abstract: A new Late Triassic tetrapod tracksite was discovered north of the Zone village, on the north-eastern side of the Iseo Lake (Southern Alps, Brescia, Lombardy). The tracks are preserved on two distinct bedding planes, belonging to the lower/middle Carnian Val Sabbia Sandstone. The ichnoassemblage is composed of about seventy footprints, organized in six quadrupedal trackways exhibiting both wide and narrow gauge. All the trackways can be attributed to a crurotarsan archosaur trackmaker and at least three of them could be assigned with confidence to the ichnogenus Brachychirotherium Beurlen 1950. If we exclude a dubious Brachychirotherium specimen track from Mt. Pelmetto (Dolomites), the Zone material represents the first well documented report of this ichnogenus from the Upper Triassic of Northern Italy. The footprints have been analyzed both with traditional methods, and with 3D technologies, such as the terrestrial laser scanner. The ichnoassemblage, although not exceptionally preserved, adds new important data for the stratigraphic distribution of crurotarsan tracks in the Triassic of Southern Alps.

2010 Meeting of the Western Association of Vertebrate Paleontologists

Petrified Forest National Park hosted this annual, somewhat informal, meeting in 2009. This year the host is Arizona Western College in sunny, warm Yuma Arizona. The dates will be February 12-14 and if I'm not mistaken there should be a field trip to El Golfo, Mexico. Back in the late 1990s I helped out with some of this work and it is just incredible. Great exposures near the mouth of the Colorado River and lots of fossils (I forgave that they were late Pleistocene). Fred Croxen and his collaborators have been doing great work here for more than a decade. Plus, it will be warm in February and you are in Mexico on the Gulf of California. For those of you in the western US, what else are you going to do in February? Freeze?

Check out this webpage for more information on the meeting (Thanks to Andy Farke for forwarding this on).

Headline of the Year!

OK... I know that it is only the beginning of January, but how is it even remotely possible that another news headline as great as this will appear in the next 11.75 months?

"Cold Iguanas Free-Fall From Trees"

There is a severe cold spell through much of the United States right now including typically warm Florida obviously it is having an effect. You can read about it here and there is even a video!

Triassic Literature Recap - 2009

It is that time again, a list of all of the Triassic paleontological (and some geological) research that was published in 2009. A lot of this was mentioned here in previous posts and I cannot say for sure that the list is exhaustive as I've surely missed a few.

Some of you may remember that the most prolific Triassic author for 2008 was Mike Benton. For 2009 it is Cesar Schultz who is on six publications.

Abdala, F. and Smith, R. M. H. 2009. A Middle Triassic cynodont fauna from Namibia and its implications for the biogeography of Gondwana: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29:837-851.

Allain, R., and E. Lang. 2009. Origine et evolution des saurischiens (Saurischian origins and evolution). Compte Rendus Palevol 8:243-256. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2008.09.013

Arantes, B. de A., Soares, M. B. and Schultz, C. L. 2009. Clevosaurus brasiliensis (Lepidosauria, Sphenodontia) do Triassico superior do Rio Grande do Sul: anatomia postcraniana e relacoes filogeneticas. Rev. Bras. Paleontol. 12:43-54.doi:10.4072/rbp.2009.1.04

Bardola, T. P., Schmidt, I. D., Sommer, M. G., and C. L. Schultz. 2009. Ginkgophyta wood in petrified forest of the Upper Triassic from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia 12:139-148. doi:10.4072/rbp.2009.2.04

Barrett, P.M., McGowan, A.J., and V. Page. 2009. Dinosaur diversity and the rock record. Procedings of the Royal Society B published online 29 April 2009. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.0352

Beatty, B.L., and A.B. Heckert. 2009. A large archosauriform tooth with multiple supernumerary carinae from the Upper Triassic of New Mexico (USA), with comments on carina development and anomalies in the Archosauria. Historical Biology 21:57-65. DOI: 10.1080/08912960903154511.

Bittencourt, J. de S. and Kellner, A. W. A. 2009. The anatomy and phylogenetic position of the Triassic dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970. Zootaxa 2079:1-56.

Brusatte, S. L., Butler, R. J., Sulej, T. and Niedzwiedzki, G. 2009. The taxonomy and anatomy of rauisuchian archosaurs from the Late Triassic of Germany and Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54:221-230.

Butler, R. J. 2009. The anatomy of the basal ornithischian dinosaur Eocursor parvus from the Lower Elliot Formation (Late Triassic) of South Africa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, Published early online, doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00631.x

Butler, R. J., Barrett, P. M. and Gower, D. J. 2009. Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity and air-sacs in the earliest pterosaurs: Biology Letters 5:557-560.

Cheng, Y.-N., Holmes, R., Wu, X.-C. and Alfonso, N. 2009. Sexual dimorphism and life history of Keichousaurus hui (Reptilia: Sauropterygia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29:401-408.

Clark, N. D. L. and Corrance, H. 2009 New discoveries of Isochirotherium herculis (Egerton 1838) and a reassessment of chirotheriid footprints from the Triassic of the Isle of Arran, Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology 45:69-82.

Dalla Vecchia, F. M. 2009. Anatomy and systematics of the pterosaur Carniadactylus gen. n. rosenfeldi (Dalla Vecchia, 1995). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 115:159-188.

Damiani, R., Schoch, R.R., Hellrung, H., Werneburg, R., and S. Gastou. 2009. The plagiosaurid temnospondyl Plagiosuchus pustuliferus (Amphibia: Temnospondyli) from the Middle Triassic of Germany: anatomy and functional morphology of the skull. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 155:348-373. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00444.x

Da Silva, R.C., Carvalho, I., and A.C.S. Fernandes. 2009. Dinosaur footprints from the Triassic (Santa Maria Formation) of Brazil. Ameghiniana 45: 783-790.

Desojo, J. B. and Vizcano, S. F. 2009. Jaw biomechanics in the South American aetosaur Neoaetosauroides engaeus. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 83:499-510.

Dias-da-Silva, S., Dias, E. V. and Schultz, C. L. 2009. First record of stereospondyls (Tetrapoda, Temnospondyli) in the Upper Triassic of Southern Brazil. Gondwana Research 15:131-136.

Diedrich, C. 2009. The vertebrates of the Anisian/Landinian boundary (Middle Triassic) from Bissendorf (NW Germany) and their contribution to the anatomy, palaeoecology, and palaeobiogeography of the Germanic Basin reptiles. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 273:1-16.

Dilkes, D. and Sues, H.-D. 2009. Redescription and phylogenetic relationships of Doswellia kaltenbachi (Diapsida: Archosauriformes) from the Upper Triassic of Virgina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29:58-79.

Dyke, G. J., McGowan, A.J., Nudds, R.L., and D. Smith. In Press. The shape of pterosaur evolution: evidence from the fossil record. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01682.x

Fostowicz-Frelik, L., and T. Sulej. 2009. Bone histology of Silesaurus opolensis Dzik, 2003 from the Late Triassic of Poland. Lethaia. 10.1111/j.1502-3931.2009.00179.x

Fröbisch, J., Angielczyk, K. D. and Sidor, C. A. 2009. The Triassic dicynodont Kombuisia (Synapsida, Anomodontia) from Antarctica, a refuge from the terrestrial Periman-Triassic mass extinction. Naturwissenschaften, published online, 10pp.

Fry, P.J., Bender, B.R., and L. Turanga. 2009. A new feathered aetosaurian pseudosuchian from the Rottenhillian (?Carnian/?Norian?) of Texas. Naturama 55:235-236.

Gastaldo, R.A., Neveling, J., Clark, C.K., and S.S. Newbury. 2009. The terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary event bed is a nonevent Geology:199-202 DOI: 10.1130/G25255A.1

Gierlinski, G.D. 2009. A preliminary report on new dinosaur tracks from the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous of Poland; pp. 75-90 in Salas, C.A.-P. (ed.), Actas de las IV Jornadas Internacionales sobre Paleontologia de Dinosaurios y su Entorno. Colectivo Arqueológico-Paleontológico de Salas de los Infantes, Burgos.

Gottmann-Quesda, A. and Sander, P. M. 2009. A redescription of the early archosauromorph Protorosaurus speneri Meyer, 1832, and its phylogenetic relationships: Palaeotographica Abt A 287:123-220.

Gower, D. J. and Schoch, R. R. 2009. Postcranial anatomy in the Rauisuchian archosaur Batrachotomus kupferzellensis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29:103-122.

Gruszka, B. and T. Zielinski. 2008. Evidence for a very low-energy fluvial system: a case study from the dinosaur-bearing Upper Triassic rocks of Southern Poland. Geological Quarterly 52:239-252.

Jourdan, F., Marzoli A., Bertrand, H., S. Cirilli, S., Tanner, L.H., Kontak, D.J.,
McHone, G, Renne, P.R., and G. Bellieni. 2009. 40Ar/39Ar ages of CAMP in North America: Implications for the Triassic–Jurassic boundary and the 40K decay constant bias. Lithos 110:167-180. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2008.12.011

Kammerer, C.F., and K.D. Angielczyk. 2009. A proposed higher taxonomy of anomodont therapsids. Zootaxa 2018:1-24.

Klein, N. 2009. Skull morphology of Anarosaurus heterodontus (Reptilia: Sauropterygia: Pachypleurosauria) from the Lower Muschelkalk of the Germanic basin (Winterswijk, The Netherlands). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29:665-676.

Klembara, J., and J. Welman. 2009. The anatomy of the palatoquadrate in the Lower Triassic Proterosuchus fergusi (Reptilia, Archosauromorpha) and its morphological transformation within the archosauriform clade. Acta Zoologica 90(3):275-284. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00358.x.

Korte, C., Hesselbo, S.P., Jenkyns, H.C., Rickaby, R.E.M., and C. Spotyl. 2009. Palaeoenvironmental significance of carbon- and oxygen-isotope stratigraphy of marine Triassic–Jurassic boundary sections in SW Britain. Journal of the Geological Society, London 166:431–445. doi: 10.1144/0016-76492007-177.

Kubo, T. and Benton, M. J. 2009. Tetrapod postural shift estimated from Permian and Triassic trackways. Palaeontology 52:1029-1037.

Langer, M. C., Ezurra, M. D., Bittencourt, J. S. and Novas, F. E. 2009. The origin and early evolution of dinosaurs. Biological Review 84:1-56. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2009.00094.x

Li, Q. 2009. A new parasemionotid-like fish from the Lower Triassic of Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China. Palaeontology 52:369-384.

Liu, J. and Powell, J. 2009. Osteology of Andescynodon (Cynodontia: Traversodontidae) from the Middle Triassic of Argentina: American Museum Noviates 3674:1-19.

Lucas, S. G. 2009. Timing and magnitude of tetrapod extinctions across the Permo-Triassic Boundary. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 36:491-502.

Maisch, M.V., Vega, C.S., and R.R. Schoch. 2009. No dicynodont in the Keuper – a reconsideration of the occurrence of aff. Dinodontosaurus in the Middle Triassic of Southern Germany. Palaeodiversity 2:271-278.

Maganuco, S., and G. Pasini. 2009. A new specimen of trematosaurian temnospondyl from the Lower Triassic of NW Madagascar, with remarks on palatal anatomy and taxonomic affinities. Atti della Societtaliana di scienze naturali e del Museo civico di storia naturale di Milano 150:91-112.

Maganuco S., Steyer J. S., Pasini G., Boulay M., Lorrain S., Bénéteau A. & Auditore M., in press – An exquisite specimen of Edingerella madagascariensis (Temnospondyli) from the Lower Triassic of NW Madagascar; cranial anatomy, phylogeny and restorations. Memorie della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano.

Martinelli, A. G., La Fuente, M. and Abdala, F. 2009. Diademodon tetragonus Seeley, 1894 (Therapsida: Cynodontia) in the Triassic of South America and its biostratigraphic implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29:852-862.

Martinez, R. N. and Alcober, O. A. 2009. A basal sauropodomorph (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from the Ischigualastro Formation (Triassic, Carnian) from the early evolution of sauropodomorpha. Public Library of Science (PLOS) ONE 4, 12pp.

Muttoni, G., Kent, D.V., Jadoul, F., Olsen, P.E., Rigo, M., Galli, M.T., and A. Nicora. 2009. Rhaetian magneto-biostratigraphy from the Southern Alps (Italy): Constraints on Triassic chronology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.10.014.

Nesbitt, S. L., Stocker, M. R., Small, B. J. and Downs, A. 2009. The osteology and relationships of Vancleavea campi (Reptilia: Archosauriformes): Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society 157:814-864. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00530.x

Nesbitt, S. J., Irmis, R. B., Parker, W. G., Smith, N. D., Turner, A. H., and Rowe, T. 2009. Hindlimb osteology and distribution of basal dinosauromorphs from the Late Triassic of North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29:498-516.

Nicolas, M., and B.S. Rubidge. 2009. Changes in Permo-Triassic terrestrial tetrapod ecological representation in the Beaufort Group (Karoo Supergroup) of South Africa. Lethaia, 10.1111/j.1502-3931.2009.00171.x.

Oliveira, T. V. de, Schultz, C. L. and Soares, M. B. 2009. A partial skeleton of Chinquodon (Cynodontia, Chinquodontidae) from the Brazilian Middle Triassic. Rev. Bras. Palaeont, 12:113-122.

Rayfield, E. J., Barrett, P. M. and Milner, A. R. 2009. Utility and validity of Middle and Late Triassic 'land vertebrate faunachrons'. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29:80-87.

Reichel, M., Schultz, C. L. and Soares, M. B. 2009. A new traversodontid cynodont (Therapsida, Eucynodontia) from the Middle Triassic Santa Maria Formation of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Palaeontology 52:229-250.

Renesto, S. and Lucas, S. G. 2009. Cynodont teeth from the Carnian (Late Triassic) of northern Italy. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54:357-360.

Renesto, S. C., Spielmann, J. A. and Lucas, S. G. 2009. The oldest record of drepanosaurids (Reptilia, Diapsida) from the Late Triassic (Adamanian Placerias Quarry, Arizona, USA) and the stratigraphic range of the Drepanosauridae: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 252:315-325.

Shang, Q.-H. and Li, C. 2009. On the occurrence of the ichthyosaur Shastasaurus in the Guanling Biota (Late Triassic), Guizhou, China. Vertebrate PalAsiatica 47:178-193.

Spielmann, J.A., Lucas, S.G., Heckert, A.B., Rinehart, L.F., and H. R. Richards III. 2009. Redescription of Spinosuchus caseanus (Archosauromorpha: Trilophosauridae) from the Upper Triassic of North America. Palaeodiversity 2: 283–313.

Stock Da-Rosa, A. A., Piniero, G., Dias-Da-Silva, S. Cisneros, J. C., Feltrin, F. F., and L. W. Neto. 2009. Bica São Tomé, a new fossiliferous site for the Lower Triassic of Southern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia 12:67-76. doi: 10.4072/rbp.2009.1.06

Tsuji L. A. and J. Muller. 2009. Assembling the history of the Parareptilia: phylogeny, diversification, and a new definition of the clade. Fossil Record 12:71-81. DOI 10.1002/mmng.200800011

Veiga de Oliveira, T., Schultz, C. L., and M. B. Soares. 2009. A partial skeleton of Chiniquodon (Cynodontia, Chiniquodontidae) from the Brazilian Middle Triassic. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia 12: 113-122. doi:10.4072/rbp.2009.2.02

Wu, X.-C., Cheng, Y.-N., Sato, T. and Shan, H.-Y. 2009. Miodentosaurus brevis Cheng et al., 2007 (Diapsida: Thalattosauria): its postcranial skeleton and phylogenetic relationships: Vertebrata PalAsiatica 47:1-20.

Zaghloul, M.N., Critelli, S., Perri, F., Mongelli, G., Perrone, V., Sonnino, M., Tucker, M., Aiello, M., and Ventimiglia, C. 2009. Depositional systems, composition and geochemistry of Triassic rifted-continental margin redbeds of the Internal Rif Chain, Morocco. Sedimentology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2009.01080.x.